tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:/posts The Para-Rigger 2021-05-10T12:41:02Z tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1689147 2021-05-10T12:28:03Z 2021-05-10T12:41:02Z Truly Great Warbirds and Pilot
Mark Hanna - Pt.4 - The Truly Great (vintageaviationecho.com)

There are links to the first 3 parts of the story at the end of Pt. 4

It made me think what a beast the Polikarpov I-16 must have been to fly. The fastest-ever aileron rolls, but so short-coupled you couldn’t take your hands off for a second. Hats off to the kids who had to fly things like this in WW2…

Polikarpov I-16 - history photos specification of the ]]>
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1687684 2021-05-06T01:31:00Z 2021-05-06T01:34:55Z Bin Laden Death - A White House Oral History

Photo Obama Clinton Bin Laden - Resenhas de Livros

tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1687204 2021-05-04T20:36:01Z 2021-05-04T20:55:51Z Col. Robin Olds And The Art Of The Dogfight

tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1686979 2021-05-04T12:41:54Z 2021-05-10T00:31:56Z VE Day
The History Press  Memories of VE Day

Today's selection -- from Year Zero by Ian Buruma. The official end to World War II in Europe was attended by jockeying among political leaders, confusion, and massive celebrations:

"The official date for the end of the war in Europe, V-E Day, was in fact May 8. Even though the unconditional surrender of all German troops was signed in a schoolhouse in Rheims on the evening of May 6, the cel­ebrations could not yet begin. Stalin was furious that General Eisenhower had presumed to accept the German surrender for the eastern as well as western fronts. Only the Soviets should have that privilege, in Berlin. Stalin wanted to postpone V-E Day till May 9. This, in turn, annoyed Churchill.

"People all over Britain were already busy baking bread for celebratory sandwiches; flags and banners had been prepared; church bells were wait­ing to be tolled. In the general confusion, it was the Germans who first announced the end of the war in a radio broadcast from Flensburg, where Admiral Doenitz was still nominally in charge of what remained of the tattered German Reich. This was picked up by the BBC. Special editions of the French, British, and U.S. newspapers soon hit the streets. In Lon­don, large crowds gathered around Piccadilly Circus and Trafalgar Square, expecting Churchill to announce victory so the biggest party in history could finally begin. Ticker tape started raining in the streets of New York. But still there was no official announcement from the Allied leaders that the war with Germany was over.

"Just before midnight on May 8, at the Soviet HQ in Karlshorst, near my father's old labor camp, Marshal Georgy Zhukov, the brutal military genius, at last accepted the German surrender. Once more, Admiral von Friedeberg put his signature to the German defeat. Field Marshal Wil­helm Keitel, expressionless, rigid, every inch the Prussian soldier, told the Russians that he was horrified by the extent of destruction wrought on the German capital. Whereupon a Russian officer asked Keitel whether he had been equally horrified when on his orders, thousands of Soviet vil­lages and towns were obliterated, and millions of people, including many children, were buried under the ruins. Keitel shrugged his shoulders and said nothing.

"Zhukov then asked the Germans to leave, and the Russians, together with their American, British, and French allies, celebrated in style with teary-eyed speeches and huge amounts of wine, cognac, and vodka. A banquet was held in that same room the following day when Zhukov toasted Eisenhower as one of the greatest generals of all time. The toasts went on and on and on, and the Russian generals, including Zhukov, danced, until few men were left standing.

"On May 8, crowds were already going crazy in New York. They were also pouring into the streets in London, but a peculiar hush still fell over the British crowds, as though they were waiting for Churchill's voice to set off the celebrations. Churchill, who had decided to ignore Stalin's wish to postpone V-E Day till the ninth, would speak at 3 P.M. President Truman had already spoken earlier. General Charles de Gaulle, refusing to be upstaged by Churchill, insisted on making his announcement to the French at exactly the same time.

"Churchill's speech on the BBC was heard on radios around the world.

"There was no more room to move on Parliament Square outside Westmin­ster, where loudspeakers had been installed. People were pressed against the gates of Buckingham Palace. Cars could no longer get through the crowds in the West End. Big Ben sounded three times. The crowd went quiet, and at last Churchill's voice boomed through the loudspeakers: 'The German war is therefore at an end ... almost the whole world was combined against the evil-doers, who are now prostrate before us ... We must now devote all our strength and resources to the completion of our task, both at home and abroad ... ' And here his voice broke: ''Advance Britannia! Long live the cause of freedom! God save the King.' A little later, he made the V for Vic­tory sign on the balcony of the Ministry of Health. 'God bless you all. This is your victory!' And the crowd yelled back: 'No it is yours!'

"The Daily Herald reported: 'There were fantastic "mafficking" scenes in the heart of the city as cheering, dancing, laughing, uncontrollable crowds mobbed buses, jumped on the roofs of cars, tore down a hoarding for causeway bonfires, kissed policemen and dragged them into the dancing ... Motorists gave the V-sign on their electric horns. Out on the river tugs and ships made the night echo and re-echo with V-sirens."

Somewhere in that crowd were my eighteen-year-old mother, who had been given time off from her boarding school, and her younger brother. My grandmother, Winifred Schlesinger, daughter of German-Jewish im­migrants, had every reason to be happy, and her worship of Churchill knew no bounds. But she was nervous that her children might get lost in the "excited, drunken crowd-especially Yanks.'

"In New York, five hundred thousand people celebrated in the streets.

"Curfew was lifted. The clubs -- the Copacabana, the Versailles, the Latin Quarter, the Diamond Horseshoe, El Morocco -- were packed and open half the night. Lionel Hampton was playing at the Zanzibar, Eddie Stone at the Hotel Roosevelt Grill, and 'jumbo portions' of food were on offer at Jack Dempsey's.

"In Paris, on the Place de la Republique, a reporter for the Liberation newspaper watched 'a moving mass of people, bristling with allied flags. An American soldier was wobbling on his long legs, in a strange state of disequilibrium, trying to take photographs, two bottles of cognac, one empty, one still full, sticking from his khaki pockets.' A U.S. bomber pilot thrilled the crowd by flying his Mitchell B-25 through the gap under the Eiffel Tower."

Year Zero A History of 1945

tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1686917 2021-05-04T01:12:10Z 2021-05-10T00:32:03Z Timothy, the Russian Tortoise and Last Survivor of the Crimean war

Timothy the Russian Tortoise Photos | Russian tortoise ...
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1686478 2021-05-03T01:37:28Z 2021-05-10T00:32:09Z 80 B-25s Lost, Vesuvius Eruption 1944

tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1686169 2021-05-02T13:39:31Z 2021-05-10T00:32:14Z The Blasting Of Blossom Rock, San Francisco Harbor, April 23, 1870

tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1685490 2021-04-30T17:41:46Z 2021-05-10T00:32:18Z A Love Story For Our Times

Amid COVID, WWII veteran shares marriage story in new book ...
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1684638 2021-04-28T18:48:21Z 2021-04-28T20:36:27Z Roz Chast - On "Fending"

New Yorker cartoonist Roz Chast reflects on the little ...
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1683496 2021-04-26T10:34:00Z 2021-04-26T10:34:00Z Colette

French Resistance film 'Colette' wins Oscar for best ...
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1682841 2021-04-24T18:39:07Z 2021-04-24T20:15:26Z Uncle Fester An' The Elephint

Jackie Coogan enlisted in the Army in March 1941 but requested transfer to the Army Air Forces as a glider pilot after Pearl Harbor because of his civilian flying experience. He then volunteered for hazardous duty in the 1st Commando Air Group. In December 1943, the unit was sent to India. He flew British troops, the Chindits, under General Orde Wingate on March 5, 1944, landing them at night in a small jungle clearing 100 miles behind Japanese lines in the Burma Campaign. There he is, kneeling, front row, far right, his Waco glider in the background

175 best images about Gliders WW II on Pinterest  Models

CG-3 USA Waco Military Glider Airplane Wood Model Replica

After a training flight in India, Coogan, impatiently waiting for a jeep to pull his Waco back to the assembly area, waltzed over and unhitched an elephant from a teak log and onto his glider. Things were going just fine until the elephant, looking behind and seeing this unknown monster (the Waco) following him, panicked and broke into an elephantine gallop into the nearest forest, despite Coogan's imprecations and curses. The wings were torn off and the glider used for parts, one would suppose. He was told, very sternly, to wait for the jeep next time.

Elephant at Work Towing Two Teak Logs in Forest Near

We useter watch the steamers an' the hathis pilin' teak.
Elephints a-pilin' teak
In the sludgy squdgy creek,
Where the silence 'ung that 'eavy you was 'arf afraid to speak!
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1681505 2021-04-21T19:46:53Z 2021-04-21T19:46:53Z Disney's Secret Underground Tunnel System

What are the underground tunnels of Disney World like? - Quora
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1681213 2021-04-21T00:07:55Z 2021-04-21T00:07:55Z How Mosquitoes Shaped The Course Of Human History
  Oops. Wrong kind. Here is a far deadlier version: 

Mosquito | Beach Cities Health District
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1680842 2021-04-20T00:53:48Z 2021-04-20T12:58:41Z Mira Costa and the Uyematsu Family

tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1679069 2021-04-15T14:26:34Z 2021-04-15T14:53:39Z Battle Stations: Higgins, Plywood and Heroism

museumships.us - Your most complete source for Museum ...
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1677023 2021-04-10T08:14:37Z 2021-04-10T17:04:03Z Why Shakespeare Could Never Have Been French

Rare 1623 Book of Shakespeare's Works Could Sell for $6 ...
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1676620 2021-04-09T14:29:37Z 2021-04-09T14:29:38Z USS Johnston, Deepest "Wreck Dive" In History

World War 2 History: Destroyer USS Johnston Attacks ...
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1676462 2021-04-09T01:46:05Z 2021-04-09T01:46:05Z MOAB: The Mother Of All Bombs

What Is MOAB, the Mother of All Bombs?
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1676254 2021-04-08T17:55:29Z 2021-04-09T00:59:32Z An Amazing Glacier Cloud Avalanche
 Really something. Kapuche Glacier Lake is in Nepal, Near Annapurna

Black Stork Treks
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1675918 2021-04-07T20:52:26Z 2021-04-07T20:52:26Z How The First Spacewalk Nearly Ended in Disaster

Voskhod 2 (Kerbal Space Program - RSS/RO) - YouTube
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1675752 2021-04-07T15:06:56Z 2021-04-07T16:56:08Z Well written article

Did the Japanese people know how bad the war was going for them in 1945?
First, the obtuse claim in one answer here which is that the Japanese public in general was not aware how bad the war was going against them is blatantly wrong. That claim is based on the fact that widespread censorship during the war kept most Japanese in the dark about the course of the war.
While it was true that Japanese commoners were lied to, misled by the Japanese government and its propaganda machinery, they were wise enough to be able to deduce correctly that the war was deteriorating through other clues.

Food Crisis
The first clue was the deteriorating food situation. Anticipating a protracted war with the Anglo-American powers, the Japanese government controlled by militarists enforced rationing of all sorts of materials deemed vital for the war effort such as rubber, metals, oil, and especially foods. These materials were stockpiled and reserved for the military. In 1940, rice was added to the growing list of rationed commodities. Because rice was a staple of Japanese daily diet, many Japanese became profoundly unhappy with this situation. In addition, the government instituted a new law which dictated all families to fast one day every month.
The food shortage degenerated into the food crisis as the war deteriorated. American submarines sank millions of tons of Japanese merchant ships which deprived Japanese commoners of foods taken from occupied territories in addition to raw materials needed for factories in the Home Islands. The USAAF conducted aerial mine-laying campaign in the Inland Sea
The aerial mine-laying campaign was extremely effective in destroying Japanese shipping and hindering maritime activities which disrupted the transportation of foods and other raw materials between the 4 main islands of Japan.
The food crisis brought about widespread malnutrition and illness among the civilian population. In August 1944, a factory reported that 30% of women and boys in its workforce were afflicted by beriberi induced by malnutrition. This in turn resulted in absenteeism as workers were more concerned with finding foods for their families than going to work. Daily calories intake for Japanese was 1,900 in 1944, then 1,680 in 1945 compared to 2,000 calories/day before the Pacific War broke out. The food crisis only worsened and was encapsulated by a diary entry of Admiral Matome Ugaki
Observing a slice of funny little fish and two vegetables leaves which constitute a ration allowance. I contemplated the hardships of those who prepare a daily meal instead of the complains of those who eat it.
By comparison, daily calories intake for the British was never below 2,800; and daily calories intake for an American soldier in combat duty was > 3,000.
Increasingly tormented by hunger and deprivations, millions of Japanese commoners - including the most gullible and least educated - could appreciate the rapid deterioration of the war. Their thoughts must have been along the line of “If the war was going well for Japan, then why were we suffering from deprivations? Why were we getting less and less foods?”

Devastation of the Homeland
Following the loss of the strategically important Marianas Islands to US force, the USAAF had a forward base for the new powerful long-range Boeing B-29 Superfortress. Starting since October 1944, B-29s based in the Marianas began mounting strategic bombing campaign against the Japanese Home Islands. Initially, the strategic bombing campaign yielded disappointing result due to numerous problems: poor accuracy of high-altitude bombing, adverse weather conditions (esp jet streams) over Japan, and the unreliability of the B-29s engines.
However, when General Curtis LeMay was appointed commander of the B-29 force in the Marianas, the situation improved rapidly. Highly technically competent, determined and aggressive, LeMay subjected the B-29 crews to intense training to improve bombing accuracy using both visual sighting and radar. The ground crews worked relentlessly to improve the reliability of the the engines.
Another drastic act implemented by LeMay was the tactic of low-medium-altitude bombing at night. Exploiting the fact that Japanese AA defense plus night fighters were ineffective, LeMay ordered the removal of all defensive armament from B-29s which would allow them to carry more bombs. Most importantly, all B-29s would carry napalm bomb to destroy housing made of paper in densely populated Japanese urban areas. The die was cast for one of the most devastating bombing raids in history: Bombing of Tokyo (10 March 1945).
The raid was a complete success. LeMay’s bold and unorthodox tactic paid off handsomely. The B-29 force suffered light losses in return for the devastation inflicted on Tokyo. A large swath of the capital was incinerated. An estimate of > 100,000 people were killed.
The aftermath of the incendiary bombing raid on 9th-10th March 1945: Charred corpses of Japanese civilians.
Hiroshima? Nope, this was a section of Tokyo obliterated by low-altitude incendiary attack of XXI Bomber Force 9th-10th March 1945.
Soon other Japanese cities suffered the same fate: Yokohama, Kobe, Osaka. etc…
The raid shocked the people who survived these raids. The devastation was so horrific and complete that no one could fail to be impressed. Apart from air raids, the US Navy bombarded coastal regions of Japanese by the big guns of battleships and by carrier-aircraft.
The fact that the Americans were able to destroy the sacred soil of the Home Islands with near impunity and the failure of the military to repel the enemy engendered deep-seated anger among Japanese commoners. They criticized the government for the inability to provide adequate protection for its citizens during air raids. The military was accused of incompetence for the failure to defend the Home Islands against the intruders.

Growing Social Unrest, Resentment and War Weariness
Despite the numerous claims of the Japanese propaganda machinery about the unity of the Yamato-race, the reality was much different. Even before the Pacific War, Japan was torn internally by pervasive poverty, class division and hierarchy, resentment between the rich and the poor, between the commoners and political establishment and the military. All of these problems were only exacerbated as the war deteriorated in 1944, 1945.
While commoners endured hunger on a regular basis, the rich and members of the military continued to eat properly. The tightening of food rationing only deepened the resentment between civilians and the military.
While the poor were conscripted and sent to the battlefield, the rich and the well-connected evaded conscription. Rumors of corruption or special privileges for the wealthy always provoked anger among the poor.
While the police arrested and punished ordinary citizens who engaged in illegal trading of commodities in the black markets, they turned a blind eye to or protected offenders in their ranks and in the military.
Restaurants were closed ostensibly due to food shortages but were reopened as military clubs patronized by military officers who ate and drank heartily in the company of geisha. Policemen and military servicemen took foods in stores without paying.
Resentment extended even to the Imperial Households, including Emperor Hirohito. By late 1944, there were reports of defamation directed at the Emperor who were referred to as baka (fool), bakayaro (stupid fool), bocchan (spoiled child). Signs of defeatism emerged as anti-war and anti-military statements, letters and wall-writing proliferated. Unsigned letters were sent to politicians urging them to end the war as soon as possible to end all suffering of the commoners. Those letters conveyed similar statements such as:
Please stop this war as soon as possible
Japan will lose this war for certain
Aren’t you aware of how difficult the lives of the Japanese people have become?
The situation got so bad that the government had to introduce a new law called Peace Preservation Law to punish and suppress defeatism.
Deprivations and social resentment resulted in the rupture of traditional values and social order in a shame-based society whose people prided themselves on honor. Petty theft became rampant. Handbags and briefcases were stolen on crowded trains. Shoes left at the entrances of houses and restaurants were stolen. Hungry people snuck through windows in the kitchens to steal foods. Children in cities were found to live in sheds and lived off scraps of foods from other houses. A young girl in Niigata was disillusioned by these behaviors, remarking:
I became disillusioned with the disgraceful qualities in our people. They had become a herd whose humanity had been shorn from them by war.
Furthermore, starting since 1944, millions of Japanese in cities started to see through the lies of their government. Most tellingly was their dubious reaction to officials claims of victories and slogans. For example, after the loss of Saipan, the government issued contradictory and bewildering statements claiming that Imperial forces had won a great victory in the Marianas Islands. Newspaper issued hollow and bombastic slogans such as “The Fighting Will of 100 million Seethes” or “The Establishment of an Impenetrable Defense Cordon and Total Tenacity” (you can see how fond the Japanese were of exaggerated and dramatic statements)
Those slogans and official statements failed to mislead ordinary Japanese. Recognizing the facts that Saipan was relatively close to the Home Island and that it was home to a sizeable Japanese population, they reasoned that if the Americans were able to invade it, then the government’s ludicrous claims of victories could not have been true. It followed that Saipan must have fallen into American hand. Aiko Takahashi wrote in her diary 18th July 1944 that Japan had obviously suffered another crushing defeat and she did not give credence to the claim that the Marianas were conceded to lure the enemy closer to the Home Islands where they would be annihilated. Many other Japanese shared her Takahashi’s view. But fearing arrest by the authority, they could only keep those opinions to themselves or confide them only to people they trusted.

Japanese people weren’t completely gullible and brainwashed as many people have believed. They were human beings after all; and as humans, they had all the primal needs for food and other emotional and physical comforts. The negative effects arising from the deteriorating war affected their needs in the most conspicuous ways. Suffering from hunger on a regular basis, losing their homes and fellow people in air attacks, they clearly appreciated that the war was going badly for their country. Resentful of their incompetent leaders, the military, the police, and the wealthy, they were war-weary and sincerely wished for a swift end to the war so that they could be delivered from their suffering.
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1675332 2021-04-06T18:09:47Z 2021-04-06T18:09:47Z Neutrino Telescopes Under The World's Deepest Freshwater Lake

One Week Photography Tour in Russia | Lake Baikal & Olkho...
tag:para-rigger.posthaven.com,2013:Post/1675218 2021-04-06T13:11:36Z 2021-04-06T13:13:38Z The P47 was the best fighter of WW2
Former Pro Military Artist for 25 Years

Is it true that most Luftwaffe pilots would rather be sent to the Eastern Front than the Western Front?
I can’t, of course, speak for all German aviators, but I had the immense luck to meet and become friends with a very special one, and I heard his thoughts about the Eastern vs the Western Front…
I was once a professional artist working for the US Military, military and aviation museums, restorers, CAF squadrons, the Tuskegee Airmen, etc. focusing on military subjects, esp. WWII aircraft/AFV and the Middle Ages/Mongols. I met the German aviator Günther Rall at the EAA FlyIn at Oshkosh, WI, one year when we had adjoining booths and stayed friends/penpals till his death. He was history’s #3 ace, with 275 victories in 621 combat missions. He was shot down five times and severely wounded, even marrying his doctor after one long hospital stay for a severely injured back.
Above: Rall in the middle in front of his Bf-109G.
He saw it all; fought in the Battle of France, Battle of Britain, Balkans, and mostly the Eastern Front, the retreat from Stalingrad and Kursk, where commanded the famous JG-52, the most successful fighter wing in history, and taught students like Erich Hartmann, and then finally in defence of the Reich.
He spoke of his concerns when, in April of ‘44, he was transferred west to fight in the defence of the Reich. The quality of the American pilots and aircraft he believed were clearly superior to the Soviet’s, and the fighting would be at higher altitudes. He had great respect for the Allied pilots, ranking, (“On this day, at least,”) the British first, the Americans a close second and the Soviets a distant third.
He said he was a bit fatalistic about facing the American P-47’s and P-51’s but was a soldier and did his duty. His fears were justified when, after he had jumped one of Zemke’s Wolfpack’s P-47’s, (Rall always used the hit-and-run tactics, NEVER got into tight turning contests, had no use at all for “dogfighting” and taught all his students, including Barkhorn and Hartmann that “if they ever found themselves “dogfighting” they had done something majorly wrong,” and considering these were the three greatest aces in history, I believe he had a point,) shooting it down, he was instantly attacked by other P-47’s. Already diving on the attack, he had no choice but to continue down, but his 109 was a terrible diver/roller and no aircraft except perhaps a P-38 could out dive a P-47 and no plane except perhaps a FW 190 could out roll it. He took many hits, including, “a bit disconcertingly!” a .50 that severed his left thumb. He bailed out and survived, but was, thankfully, out of the action for good.
He said it ultimately saved his life as the Allies had total superiority of the air and he doubted he could have survived many more encounters.
Mr. Rall was a true gentleman, and I got to hear his amazing thoughts and insights about WWII aircraft altogether, esp. fighters, and the Battle of Britain, meeting Hitler, Stalingrad, Kursk, the defence of the Reich and WWII from all angles as a whole from his unique eyewitness POV. He spoke passable English and my German, esp. reading, was good enough to hear/read some incredible stories.
My favourite memory of him was at Oshkosh when he did an impromptu history lesson outside my art booth to a crowd of intrigued aviation fans using some of my WWII art as aids. At one point some hayseed in bib overalls and a Confederate flag cap drawled, “So you was a Naaazi, huh?” Mr. Rall, not a big man, stood up straight and replied, with great dignity: “I was a soldier, sir.”
Rest in peace, sir.
Some great thoughts going on here! I apologise but I don’t have time to answer all questions individually do to health/life concerns so:
A lot of conversation about comparison dive speeds going on, lots of “data” and “stats” being thrown around and I want to give a bit of a different perspective to all this, so here’s some thoughts about what I learned from 25 years working/speaking with top test pilots, pilots, crew chiefs, designers, museums, restorers, etc.
(Above: Greatest diver in WWII.)
I knew “Corky” Meyer, and if you don’t know him it’s a shame as he was America’s top civilian test pilot, who was THE #1 Grumman test pilot who brought in the Hellcat, Bearcat, Tigercat and many of their jets, had balls that wouldn’t fit in Yankee Stadium, and eventually was Grumman’s CEO. He was so respected he was chosen to first evaluate the captured Zero. He did extensive testing of a staggering array of aircraft, Allied and Axis, and laid a real, comprehensive foundation for accurate comparison of all of America/Britain’s fighters and had the best, most accurate knowledge of all of WWII’s fighters I ever met, and he talked with the most actual hands-on experience of anyone I personally ever knew, except Eric Brown, that, unfortunately, I never met. His experience with dive testing these planes is paramount here in my notes…
I also knew many pilots who first flew the P-47 some who then switched to the P-51, and met and talked with, though didn’t know them personally, a couple, like “Gabby” Gabreski, America’s top ETO ace, who stuck with their P-47’s through the war.
I was brought up watching newsreels of beautiful, swoopy “Hollywood” Mustangs and Corsairs, and relatively few of ugly Hellcats and Thunderbolts, (having to do, I learned years later, with the restrictions put on cameramen because of top secret issues earlier in the war, that were later relaxed for publicity/public morale purposes), but I learned when I got into military aviation professionally, from most of these amazing men, to my initial surprise, but has been demonstrated to me again and again ever since, that…
The P-47 Thunderbolt was, without a doubt, the greatest fighter, *the* greatest warcraft of WWII and probably of all time. If it’s namesake the A-10 Thunderbolt was an aircraft built around a huge 30mm gun, the P-47 Thunderbolt was an aircraft built around a huge Pratt & Whitney turbo-supercharged R2800 air-cooled, radial engine.
It was *the* most versatile aircraft of WWII. It did everything well.
Docile and sweet to fly despite its size, even for the average 200 hour-trained pilots. I’ve never flown a P-51, darn it, although I have a T-6 and Yak trainer, but had (cramped but free!) rides in two 51s, and the Mustang was a little bit twitchy, you had to really fly it.
Self-sealing fuel tanks, good armour behind the pilot’s head, (and as it turned out, elsewhere from the very strong and huge turbo-supercharger system.)
Huge, tall, comfortable cockpit with unmatched visibility, and some features few aircraft could match: these included electric fuel indicators, great heating and air-conditioning for the cockpit, and variable heating for the gun-bays, great in chilly Europe and at high altitudes.
It flew over 746,000 combat sorties, more missions than the P-51, P-40, and P-38…wait for it…*combined!*
It was made in greater numbers than any other US fighter.
The pilot is the greatest/most important/expensive part of any aircraft and their survivability per mission was *the* key element of air combat, and the P-47 had the best survivability per mission of any US fighter in WWII, and I believe almost top in all nation’s fighters. “The plane’s safety record was nothing short of astounding – only about 0.7 percent of Thunderbolts were lost in action.”- Military History Now. “Thunderbolts were lost at the exceptionally low rate of 0.7 per cent per mission and Jug pilots achieved an aerial kill ratio of 4.6:1. In the European Theater, P-47 pilots destroyed more than 7,000 enemy aircraft, more than half of them in air-to-air combat.”-Smithsonian. “As a testament to the survivability of the P-47, it should be noted that the top ten aces who flew the P-47 returned home safely.”-Aviation History. That alone is so significant.
It’s true the Mustang had a better kill ratio, and are given credit for shooting down more German planes, but it’s “Apples/Oranges.” The P-47’s were in service a full year before the P-51’s started arriving in signifiant numbers, and took on and broke the back of the Luftwaffe earlier in the war when it still had good pilots. The P-47’s paved the way for D-Day’s almost unopposed by the Luftwaffe status, and when the Luftwaffe was significantly damaged, they switched the P-47s over to the much tougher role of “ground pounding”, while the P-51’s took on, for the last 10 months of the war significant numbers of good, even great German aircraft, but flown mostly by green boys, “clay pigeons,” “floaters,” some with less than 50 hours of training from lack if fuel, significantly poorer in quality than the “expertens” the P-47s had faced from late ’42 to D-Day.
It was arguably *the* best ground attack aircraft of the war with its eight .50’s, carrying 3400 rds, (425 rds per gun,) vs the P-51’s six .50’s carrying 1880 rds. And the 47 could heft 2.4 tons of ordnance, bombs and rockets in ground attack vs the P-51’s single one (1) ton. When firing 5” rockets it had the broadside of a Destroyer!
Just in Europe, from D-Day through the end of the war, P-47 units of the 9th Air Force are given credit for destroying 86,000 German railway cars, 9,000 locomotives, (their railroad system was, also arguably, the Germans greatest weapon of WWII), 6,000 armoured fighting vehicles, (NOTE: mostly by disabling their tracks/suspensions or by destroying their support vehicles, aircraft did not actually destroy many actual AFVs) and 68,000 trucks. This does not count the horses and wagons that truly propelled the Wehrmacht and infantry/artillery pieces/machine-gun-emplacements/pillboxes that the P-47’s, guided by other P-47 pilots grounded, working with the American infantry, that could bring in close support sometimes within a recorded 50 yards! Danger Close!
A significant key to its success in ground attack key was its immense strength, including its amazing Pratt & Whitney R2800 air-cooled engine that could literally have two complete cylinders blown away by German 20mm cannon shells and still get her pilot home. By comparison, the P-51 was a poor ground attack aircraft with its incredibly fragile water-cooled Packard-built Rolls Royce Merlin engine that could be destroyed by a piece of high-velocity metal the size of a fingernail clipping piercing its unarmored cooling system, a “Golden BB.” It performed poorly again in the ground attack role in Korea when the same Pratt & Whitney R2800 air-cooled radial engines, this time powering F4U Corsairs, had to be sent in to replace them after they took severe losses from ground fire.
Despite the myths and lies spread by the “Bomber Mafia” that had come to power in the Army Air Corps in the ’30’s on their totally flawed theory that fast, supercharged bombers wouldn’t need fighter protection, but would simply outrun enemy fighters, (proved murderously wrong on raids like Schweinfurt,) and who then fudged “info”,“data” and “charts” to “prove” that the existing P-47s were not good escort fighters, and “it wasn’t our fault!”, “data” still insanely waved about by amateurs today. In reality, with drop tanks, the P-47s were great escort fighters. The P-47 units went in desperation over the general’s heads, worked in cooperation to get the new British “paper” drop tanks, and proved their worth. By the model P-47D, the Thunderbolt could carry up to three drop tanks, giving it a range of 1,900 miles (3,057 kilometres), far enough to escort bombers to any target and back. And by war’s end the P-47 “N” Model was *the* premiere escort fighter of the war with a lavishly large cockpit, huge fuel tanks, even an auto pilot, and it could escort the B-29s on extremely long missions up to 2,350 miles, further than any P-51 and in incredible comfort.
With its large fuselage able to carry cameras it as an excellent photo recon ship.
It was, for all practical purposes except for a very few produced models:
The fastest piston-powered aircraft of WWII, its R2800 engine made during the war between 2,000 and 2,800 at the end, in actual hp, one horsepower per cubic inch, better performance than the RR Merlins could ever achieve.
With its turbo-supercharger it was the best high altitude fighter of the war, except for a few and relatively insignificant Ta 152s or experimentals.
And even thought it couldn’t climb or turn (“dogfight”) with smaller aircraft, despite what terrible History Channel documentaries and decades of poorly researched computer/video games try and sell, that kind of tight turning combat was NOT in vogue from 1941 on. (Read my original answer above to hear what Gunther Rall thought of “dogfighting.”) The fast hit-and-run/energy/zoom manoeuvres of ambush, dive and roll, were, and the P-47 was, except for the FW 190, the best roller, and it was the best diver of WWII.
All from a fighter designed before WWII, unlike the later arriving P-51, with its obvious advantages of hindsight/combat experience.
But specifically back to the diving abilities: the P-47 was the fastest diving piston-powered aircraft of WWII in the majority of, but not in 100% of, conditions, as nothing ever is.
“The Thunderbolt was the fastest-diving American aircraft of the war—it could reach speeds of 550 mph (480 kn; 890 km/h)”-Wiki
Once at the Planes of Fame museum “Corky” talked about how so much of the “stats” that are constantly thrown around about like Gospel on aircraft performance by folks that might not understand them or how that data was gathered…was simply wrong. He told a great story that he had heard from people who were there about the time when Lockheed established the performance stats for their new P-38 to try and sell it to the military, and it sounded like Chevy trying to fudge stats on their new Camaro!
He said that for at least a week before the “official test,” top Allison techs fine-tuned/balanced the two engines, turbo-superchargers, set exact manifold pressures, tweaked the props, (always something that could rarely be done precisely in the field with its dual engines, a huge weakness of the P-38. It was in fact two aircraft put into one, beautiful, very expensive, very complicated and its greatest weakness, not strength.) They stripped her like a stolen car of its .50’s, 20mm, ammo, big radio, armour plate, drained 3/4 of its fuel, “even threw out the fuzzy dice on the rearview mirror!” Lockheed engineers went over every inch, they had their own test pilot trained for months on this individual aircraft, “hired winged Pegasus as an advisor,” pampered, peeped and babied her, then…let ‘er rip! She flew like, well, “Winged Pegasus,” and performed magnificently, giving Lockheed great numbers to take to the military procurers who controlled the purse strings, as, patriotic as Lockheed surely was, they had a very expensive prototype they desperately wanted to sell…and they put the P-38 in an unrealistic configuration that she would never actually ever be in in a real, combat setting. The average, ordinary, 19 year-old, bubblegum chewin’, baseball cap wearin’, standing on a 50 gallon oil tank, American crewman could never, ever duplicate that level of enhanced performance in the intense, actual pressure of The Field.
When calculating the P-47’s actually dive numbers a lot of the dive speed performance people go to is based on Eric Brown’s (easily one of the top ten pilots of all time,) performance testing with the P-47.
Dive speed performance is measured differently with different factors. At high altitudes its usually “mach number limited” and at low it’s “air speed limited.” Other factors: acceleration in the dive, ease of recovery, room to recover, strength of the aircraft to actually consistently reach those numbers are also key factors to be considered here, and all to the P-47s benefit.
For instance overall a P-47D could outdive a Spitfire Mk14 by over 100mph! And it could outdive all German fighters except the Me 262 jet, (that, BTW, melted IT’S turbo fans on every mission, from lack of essential alloys, kinda expensive and labor intensive.)
Capt. Eric Brown tested the P-47 and said the P-47s mach limit was a very low .71 and that has been accepted by many for a long time, but new/old research shows he was, sorry, Eric, wrong.
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) both at Langley and the Ames Research Centers, and the Royal Air Force all tested the Thunderbolt and they all came up with much higher mach numbers than Brown, at .814815 in the US and the RAF's Fighting Development Unit came up with .836. Republic itself came up with 0.82, flown by Chief Test Pilot, Robert Johnson, our #2 ace in ETO, flying exclusively P-47s, 27 victories, who, I believe, knew what he was doing in a Thunderbolt cockpit.
Some stories said Brown had better equipment but this is unlikely. NACA had an almost unlimited wartime budget and had/could manufacture all the best equipment they needed, were very experienced at measuring mach numbers. They even tested the P-47’s manoeuvrability up to mach 0.78. So the majority of source material is hugely weighed against Eric Brown on this.
We also have pilot reports from the entire war that P-47 pilots at altitude would easily outdive German fighters, (or anything else), whose aircraft had limits from 0.75 for the Bf 109s to about 0.78 for the Fw 190s. If Brown was correct and the P-47 was limited to 0.71 then the 109s and 190s could have escaped them by diving, something that just didn’t happen as Gunther Rall personally could testify to. (The only time this didn’t happen was earlier in the war when the Thunderbolts were ordered to *not* chase the diving German fighters and stick to the bombers they were escorting.)
As I expressed earlier, simply looking at sheer numbers and stats are misleading. For instance, one huge advantage the P-47 had in the dive over the P-51 and basically almost every WWII aircraft, esp. fighters, was electric dive brakes, that it, thankfully, got relatively early in its combat career, something very few aircraft, including the Mustang, were ever equipped with.
By designing compressibility dive flaps for the heavy and fast P-47, Republic’s Aviation engineers provided means to counteract these undesirable changes and afford safe pullouts at critical speed and high altitude, a huge factor over other fighters. The P-51 with it’s great “numbers” simply couldn’t, in reality and combat situations, dive as fast as the “stats” say, as it couldn’t recover fast enough. (The P-51’s earlier cousin the A-36 Apache actually was equipped with dive brakes but the later P-51s were not.)
(Note: because of the refigured wing of the “N”ovember Model, different shape/sized, extra fuel tanks, that particular P-47 model did not have dive brakes.)
A P-47D pilot with dive recovery brakes could fly right up to or even slightly beyond the mach limit with confidence. Confidence that the aircraft was the best made and would not tear apart as most others, including P-51’s might, and that he could recover from the dive. And here’s where some of the “official stats” become meaningless: when most aircraft were on the verge of hitting their max mach number…their aircraft could possibly disintegrate. If your mach number is 0.80 but you know that at 0.805 the tail of your Bf 109 or P-51 has a pretty good chance to tear off…you are probably never going to actually go 0.80. The P-47 could honestly do that 0.82 over and over again, with no risk to plane or pilot.
This ”confidence” is another factor in the dive numbers: the actual strength of the aircraft…how many G’s can an aircraft sustain before breaking. “Corky” was famous for being able to bring home a bent ship that had most of the rivets popped and he learned some interesting things about the Thunderbolt. And here is another huge advantage to the P-47. A little know fact to most amateur historians about the P-47 is that it was THE best manufactured aircraft of WWII, followed closely by the B-29 Superfortress and Grumman F6F Hellcat. On the whole the P-51 was very well made, but it did not come close to the quality of the P-47.
Check out ‘Gregs Airplanes and Automobiles’ on Youtube for his 9 hour documentary series on the P-47, and his conclusion about this amazing aircraft. Incredible facts and figures, right down almost to the individual nuts and bolts, combat record, design philosophy, much more, amazingly meticulous research! You WILL become a believer in all things “Thunderbolt.”
(BTW, the F4U Corsair was actually quite shoddily made, built only for speed, didn’t even have a cockpit floor for most of its manufacturing run. Yes, you read right. Drop your canteen, map, compass, pencil, sandwich and you are SOL. Way tougher to land/taxi/take off in, with that huge, always leaking-white-taped-sealed forward-hog-nosed-low-viz-gas tank, and every single pilot I ever met who flew both the F6F Hellcat and the F4U Corsair vastly preferred the Hellcat, and so did the maintenance crews.)
People wonder at the $51,000 cost of a P-51D vs the $85,000 cost of a P-47D, 3 for less than the price of 2, a significant factor in the US Military continuing with the P-51 after the war. It was a bigger aircraft, of course, with duplicated systems, eight .50’s, significantly more ammo, and its huge turbo-supercharged Pratt & Whitney 2800R air-cooled, radial engine, far superior at altitude to the merely supercharged V-12, water-cooled Packard-built Rolls Royce Merlin, made up much of that cost. But additionally the cost difference was because of the sheer quality of materials and build time put into the Thunderbolt. When you study the manufacturing process of the P-47, (Check out ‘Greg’s!’) its mind-blowing. Double-skinned with the top quality aluminium, absolutely top quality steel and components, even fasteners, literally the “nuts and bolts” were better, (yes, there are many different grades of quality for all of this items, and the P-47 had the best.) When you study the amazing and huge turbo-supercharger system, you realise why the fuselage had to be so big. And it didn’t just supply massive amounts of air to the engine, the system that extended from behind the pilot to the engine itself acted as armour to the aircraft and pilot as well. The fans of the turbos, for instance, were actually made of low, but still armour-grade steel! It was never “armoured like a tank,” it would have never got off the ground, but it sure as Hell was "BUILT like a tank.” It was incredibly strong and durable and that was the reason its got its precious and expensive pilots home after being shot up better than any other WWII aircraft, this alone making it the best aircraft of WWII. Without a good pilot, even the best machine is only an expensive “paperweight.”
While some may point out the dive factors between the P-51 and the P-47 being close they are not taking in the fact that the P-51 could NOT sustain those physical strains in real combat manoeuvres: it’s tail or wings would break off and their pilots were taught NOT to dive at those speeds. The P-47 actually *could* sustain those optimal dive speeds without losing “structural integrity.” Again, the numbers, the “stats” themselves are meaningless without the real, authentic physics to give them clarity.
A lot of thoughts here. No one aircraft was the fastest diving in all conditions but the P-47 was generally considered the fastest diving prop-driven aircraft of the war.
Thanks for the time. If you’d like to see some of my pen and ink art, here’s a long-dead website with a few of my WWII aircraft and AFVs images, including a couple of Bf 109’s (G and K) and a Tiger tank. Amazingly, after 40 years my fine art T-shirts still sell at museum gift shops and on eBay. There’s no accounting for taste!
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